The uterine artery (latin: arteria uterina) is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery that provides blood supply to the uterus among other reproductive organs in the female.
The uterine artery passes inferiorly along the lateral wall of the lesser pelvis, then it goes within the broad ligament of the uterus and within the cardinal ligament to reach the cervix uteri. Then the uterine artery travels through the parametrium to the fundus of the uterus.
The uterine artery gives off several branches, such as:
- vaginal artery,
- ovarian branch,
- tubal branch,
- uretral branches.
The vaginal artery arises from the uterine artery at the cervix uteri and descends along the lateral wall of the vagina.
The ovarian branch of the uterine artery arises at the level of the cornu of the uterus, it passes along the ovarian ligament and reach the ovaries to supply them.
The tubal branch travels within the mesosalpinx to the uterine tube.
The ureteral branches of the uterine artery supply the lower third of the ureter.
To sum up, the uterine artery supplies the uterus, cervix, vagina, ovaries, uterine tube and the lower third of the ureter.