The tibial nerve (latin: nervus tibialis) is one of the terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. It is a mixed nerve containing both motor and sensory fibers.
The tibial nerve emerges above the popliteal fossa, passes along the middle of the popliteal fossa, then runs between the superficial and deep flexor muscles, reaching the medial malleolus. Further, the tibial nerve turns around the medial malleolus and runs below the flexor retinaculum into the third osteofibrous chanel and splits into two terminal branches - the medial plantar nerve and the lateral plantar nerve.
On its course the tibial nerve gives rise to several side branches:
- medial sural cutaneous nerve,
- articular branches,
- muscular branches,
- medial calcaneal branches.
The tibial nerve innervates the skin of the posterolateral side of the leg and lateral side of the foot. The muscular branches innervate the superficial and deep posterior muscles of the lower leg. The articular branches innervate the knee joint and the ankle joint. The medial calcaneal branches of the tibial nerve innervate the skin in the medial part of the calcaneal region.