Posterior cerebral artery
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA, latin: arteria cerebri posterior) is the terminal branch of the basilar artery, supplying the occipital, temporal lobes and visual areas of the cerebral cortex, and also several subcortical structures.
From its origin the posterior cerebral artery curves laterally receiving the posterior communicating artery. Then the posterior cerebral artery passes posteriorly around the cerebral peduncle of the midbrain to reach the tentorial cerebral surface, where it supplies the temporal and occipital lobes.
The PCA has cortical and central branches.
The cortical branches of the posterior cerebral artery include the following:
- temporal branches,
- occipital branches,
- parieto-occipital branches.
The temporal branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply the uncus, parahippocampal, medial and lateral occipitotemporal gyri.
The occipital branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply the cuneus, lingual gyrus, and posterolateral surface of the occipital lobe.
And the parieto-occipital branches supply the cuneus and precuneus.
The central branches of the PCA include the following:
- posteromedial central branches,
- posterior choroidal branches,
- posterolateral central branches.
The posteromedial central branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply the anterior thalamus, subthalamus, lateral wall of the third ventricle, and globus pallidus.
The posterior choroidal branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply the lateral geniculate body, choroid plexuses of the third, lateral ventricles, and the fornix.
And the posterolateral central branches supply the peduncle and the posterior thalamus, superior and inferior colliculi of the midbrain, pineal gland, and medial geniculate body.