Phalanges

  • The phalanges (latin: (pl.) phalanges; (sg.) phalanx) are digital bones in hands and feet.

    The human thumbs and big toes have two phalanges (proximal and distal), while the other digits have three phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal).

    The three phalanges articulate with one another through interphalangeal articulations. The proximal phalanges also join with the metatarsal bones of the foot at the metatarsophalangeal joints.

    The phalanges are long bones, and ech phalanx consists of three parts:

    • base of phalanx,
    • body of phalanx,
    • head of phalanx.

    The base or proximal extremity of each phalanx of the first row present oval, concave articular surfaces, while the bases of second and third row phalanges each presents a double concavity separated by a median ridge.

    The body of each phalanx is concave on the palmar surface, and convex on the dorsal surface, while the sides of the body have rough areas for attachment of fibrous sheaths of flexor tendons.

    The heads or distal extremities of phalanges are smaller than the bases, and each ends in two condyles (knuckles).