The peroneal artery (latin: arteria peronea) is a branch of the posterior tibial artery.
The peroneal artery arises at the superior part of the cruropopliteal canal. Then it passes laterally, descends via the inferior musculoperoneal canal and then divides into terminal branches called the calcaneal branches.
On its course the peroneal artery gives off several side branches: muscular branches to the lateral muscle group of the lower leg; the fibular nutritive artery that supplies the fibula; the perforating branch and the malleolar lateral branches, both forming the lateral malleolar network.
The peroneal artery supplies the lateral muscle group of the lower leg, the fibula, as well as the malleolar region.