Inferior nasal concha
The inferior nasal concha (also inferior turbinate, inferior nasal turbinate, latin: concha nasi inferior, concha nasalis inferior) is a paired bone in a form of a horizontal curved plate situated in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity. The inferior nasal concha separates the middle nasal meatus from the lower nasal meatus.
Each inferior nasal concha has two surfaces (medial, lateral), two borders (superior, inferior), and two extremities (anterior, posterior).
The medial surface of the inferior nasal concha is convex, perforated, and longitudinally grooved by blood vessels.
The lateral surface of the inferior nasal concha is concave, and participates in forming the inferior nasal meatus.
The superior border of the inferior nasal concha is thin and irregular, and it can be divided into three regions: an anterior region that articulates with the conchal crest of the maxilla, a posterior region that articulates with the conchal crest of the palatine bone, and a middle region with three processes - lacrimal, ethmoidal, maxillary -, which are variable in size and shape, and articulate with the lacrimal, ethmoid bone, and maxilla, respectively.
The inferior border of the inferior nasal concha is free, thick and spongiose.
Both the anterior and posterior extremities of the inferior nasal concha are narrowed ends of the bone, the posterior being narrower than the anterior.