The femoral nerve (also anterior crural nerve, latin: nervus femoralis) is the largest nerve of the lumbar plexus, which arises from the anterior rami of the first, second, third and fourth lumbar nerves (L1 - L4). The femoral nerve is a mixed nerve containing motor and sensory fibers.
At first, the femoral nerve lies in the groove between the psoas major and iliacus, further, it leaves the pelvic cavity via the muscular lacuna. Then the femoral nerve descends along the medial border of the thigh and further continues as the saphenous nerve.
On its course the femoral nerve gives off small branches to the hip joint, muscular branches to the quadriceps femoris, sartorius and pectineus, and anterior cutaneous branches to the skin of the thigh.
The femoral nerve innervates the hip joint, muscles of the thigh - quadriceps femoris, sartorius, pectineus, and the skin of the anterior thigh region and anterior region of the knee joint.