Deep veins of upper limb
The deep veins of the upper limb lie underneath the deep fascia. The course of the deep veins corresponds to the course of the arteries. A pair of veins accompany each artery until the axillary cavity, where two brachial veins (Latin: vv. brachiales) flow into one axillary vein (Latin: v. axillaris).
In the axilla, the axillary vein is located in a bundle of nerves and arteries most superficially and medially. It reaches the cervical region, where it continues as the subclavian vein (Latin: v. subclavia).
The main tributaries of the axillary vein include:
- anterior and posterior humeral circumflex veins from the surgical neck region,
- scapular circumflex vein,
- thoracodorsal vein,
- lateral thoracic vein,
- subcutaneous veins:
- thoracoepigastric vein from the anterior and lateral trunk (this vein more often is a tributary of the lateral thoracic vein);
- thoracoepigastric veins from the abdominal region join with the superficial epigastric veins and form an anastomosis between the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava systems;
- areolar venous plexus from the mammary glands,
- cephalic vein,
- thoracoacromial vein.