The coeliac trunk (also known as the coeliac artery, Latin: truncus coeliacus, arteria coeliaca) is a major visceral branch of the abdominal aorta arising from its anterior side. The coeliac trunk supplies the lower esophagus, stomach, superior part of the duodenum, and proximal half of the descending part of the duodenum.
The coeliac trunk is an unpaired vessel that starts from the abdominal aorta immediately below the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm, anterior to the upper part of the first lumbar vertebra (L1). Then it immediately divides into several branches:
- left gastric artery - gives off an esophageal branch and a stomach branch;
- splenic artery - gives rise to the dorsal pancreatic artery, short gastric arteries, left gastro-omental arteries, and greater pancreatic artery;
- common hepatic artery - gives rise to the proper hepatic artery, right gastric artery, and the gastroduodenal artery.
The coeliac artery may also give rise to the inferior phrenic arteries.