Anterior cerebral artery
The anterior cerebral artery (latin: arteria cerebri anterior) is one of the terminal branches of the internal carotid that supplies the medial aspects of the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres.
The anterior cerebral artery passes medial to the great longitudinal fissure, then it winds around the genu of the corpus callosum and goes along the medial surface of the hemisphere, reaching the parietooccipital sulcus.
The anterior cerebral artery can be divided into three parts:
- A1 - from the termination of the internal carotid to the junction with the anterior communicating artery;
- A2 - from the junction with the anterior communicating artery to the origin of the callosomarginal artery;
- A3 - from the distal origin of the callosomarginal artery, also called the pericallosal artery.
The anterior cerebral artery gives rise to cortical and central branches.
There are five cortical branches:
- orbital artery,
- frontopolar artery,
- parietal artery,
- callosomarginal artery,
- pericallosal artery.
The cortical branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the areas of the motor and somatosensory cortices, orbital gyrus, gyrus rectus, medial surface of the frontal and parietal lobes, cingulate gyrus, fornix.
The central branches of the anterior cerebral artery arise from its proximal portion and are the following:
- anteromedial central branches,
- medial striate artery.
The central branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum, anterior part of the putamen, head of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and the internal capsule.